TOEFL Reading (чтение)
Секция Reading (чтение) экзамена TOEFL. Продолжительность секции: 60-80 минут. Количество вопросов: 36-56. Количество текстов: 3-4.
- умение находить информацию;
- понимание текста;
- запоминание информации.
- вопросы с 4 вариантами ответов и единственно возможным правильным ответом;
- вопросы с 4 вариантами ответов, из которых необходимо выбрать один наиболее соответствующий тексту;
- вопросы с большим количеством вариантов ответов и несколькими возможными правильными ответами.
Пример текста и заданий из секции Reading
Reading Section Directions
The Reading section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English. You will read passages and answer questions about them. Answer all questions based on what is stated or implied in the passage.
Time — 20 minutes
The moon is the closest natural body and the single natural satellite of the earth. The orbit of the moon around the earth is not circular but elliptical. Thus, the distance of the moon from the earth varies from a maximum distance of 406,685 kilometers to a minimum of 365,410 kilometers. In one day, the moon moves about 12 degrees along its orbit. The moon completes one revolution of the earth in 27.3 days, a period known as a sidereal month.
A The moon rotates slowly on its axis, making one complete rotation in a period of time exactly equal to its orbit around the earth. B Thus, the moon keeps the same hemisphere or face turned toward the earth at all times. We do not, however, always see only half of the moon’s surface from the earth. C The eccentricity of the moon’s orbit allows us to see additional lunar surface through irregular movements called liberations, which expose an extra 18 percent of the moon’s surface at one time or another. D
In 1969, the first humans landed on the moon’s surface in the Sea of Tranquility. Subsequent lunar landings were on the Ocean of Storms and the Sea of Serenity. Despite these watery names, the astronauts had to cope with an environment devoid of water. The dark areas on the moon’s surface are called seas and oceans because early observers assumed the moon was much like the earth. We now know that the seas are dark because they are volcanic basalt flows, mostly of iron silicate. The brighter parts, the mountains, consist of igneous deposits of aluminum and calcium silicates.
Like the earth, the moon has no light of its own; its daylight side deflects the light of the sun. The moon goes through phases, apparent changes in its shape, because it orbits the earth in nearly the same plane as the earth orbits the sun. The eight phases of the moon arise from its changing position in relation to the earth, so the moon cannot be seen. A few nights later, a thin crescent hangs in the evening twilight. At this time, the dark side of the moon is faintly visible because it is illuminated by earthshine, the light of the sun reflected from the earth to the moon, then back again.
The second phase is a waxing crescent moon, followed by the third phase, when the moon forms a right angle with the earth-sun line, and a half moon appears at sunset. During the fourth phase, the moon is more than half but less than fully illuminated, known as a waxing gibbous moon. The waxing gibbous moon is followed by a full moon (fifth phase0, which occurs when the sun, earth, and moon are in opposition, or roughly aligned. At full moon, the rising disk of the moon appears to balance the setting sun in the evening sky. When the moon is just past full, a lunar twilight—seen as a glow in the eastern sky—will precede moonrise.
After the full moon, the moon begins to wane, through a waning gibbous moon (sixth phase), a waning half-moon (seventh phase), and a waning crescent moon (eighth phase). Toward the end of the eighth phase, a thin crescent appears at morning twilight, again accompanied by earthshine. Finally, the cycle ends and another begins with a dark moon: another new moon. The lunar cycle takes 29.5 days to complete—a period known as a synodic month or the moon’s synodic period.
At its full phase, the moon’s intensity is about one millionth that of the sun, and it is possible to read a newspaper by the light of the moon. The full moon nearest the autumnal equinox in September is called the Harvest Moon. The Harvest Moon ushers in a period of several successive days when the moon rises in the northeast soon after sunset. This phenomenon gives farmers in temperate latitudes extra hours of light in which to harvest their crops before frost and winter come. The full moon following the Harvest Moon is called the Hunter’s Moon and is accompanied by a similar but less market phenomenon of early moonrise.
1. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
(A) The only object circling the earth that is not man-made is the moon, our closest satellite.
(B) The earth has several natural satellites, but the moon has only one natural satellite.
(C) The moon is closer to the earth’s surface than are other moons to other planets’ surfaces.
(D) At some times during its orbit, the moon is closer to the earth than itis at other times.
2. The word «eccentricity» in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
3. The phrase «devoid of» in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) similar to
(B) without any
(C) covered by
(D) colder than
4. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the naming of the dark areas on the moon’s surface?
(A) People once thought the moon contained large bodies of water.
(B) The moon’s oceans and seas are named after places on the earth.
(C) The dark areas are the result of underwater volcanic eruptions.
(D) The first astronauts named the body of water in which they landed.
5. All of the following occur during a lunar cycle EXCEPT:
(A) The dark side of the moon faces the earth.
(B) A thin crescent moon appears in the evening.
(C) The moon forms a right angle with the earth-sun line.
(D) All sides of the moon are seen from the earth.
6. Which statement is true of a gibbous moon?
(A) A gibbous moon cannot be seen from the earth.
(B) A gibbous moon is more than halfway full.
(C) A gibbous moon has its own source of light.
(D) A gibbous moon immediately follows a new moon.
7. The word «wane» in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) glow brightly
(B) appear smaller
(C) change color
(D) rise earlier
8. The period of time between successive new moons is known as
(A) an elliptical orbit
(C) a waxing moon
(D) a synodic month
9. At what point in the lunar cycle is the dark side of the moon faintly illuminated?
(A) When the moon is just past full
(B) When the sun, earth, and moon are aligned
(C) Just before and just after the new moon
(D) During the fifth and sixth phases
10. The phrase «ushers in» in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to
11. According to the passage, which of the following is a benefit of the Harvest Moon?
(A) The moon forecasts clear weather for several days.
(B) The moon indicates the best time to harvest crops.
(C) Farmers are able to work by moonlight.
(D) The beginning of winter is delayed.
12. Look at the four squares, A, B , C , and D in paragraph 2. These letters indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?
13. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided bellow. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Several important features characterize the moon
(A) The moon makes one complete rotation on its axis in the same time it makes one revolution around the earth.
(B) The moon’s liberations are revealed through systematic mapping of the moon during a lunar month.
(C) The first astronauts walked on the moon’s surface in the Sea of Tranquility in 1969.
(D) The same hemisphere of the moon always faces the earth, although it changes in appearance during a lunar cycle.
(E) The moon’s different phases are a result of its changing position in relation to the earth.
(F) The Harvest Moon is the name given to the full moon nearest the autumnal equinox.
13. A, D, E